The Christ in Prophecy Journal

Bill Salus on Mystery Babylon: Not a Rebuilt Babylon

Prophecy 52

One of the portions of the book of Revelation whose meaning is hotly debated is the reference to Mystery Babylon in chapter 17. It appears that this will be the location of the Antichrist’s governmental and spiritual headquarters. But, where exactly is Mystery Babylon located? Will it be headquartered in Jerusalem, New York, Mecca, or Rome? Or, will it be ancient Babylon rebuilt?

Dr. David Reagan and I asked these questions on our television program Christ in Prophecy of Bible prophecy expert Bill Salus, the founder and director of Prophecy Depot Ministries based in La Quinta, California. Bill is a prolific writer and conference speaker, best known for his insightful book about Psalm 83 and the war that is depicted in it.

Arguments Against a Rebuilt Babylon

Bill Salus: David and Nathan, it is good to be with you. I want to personally thank you for your May edition of the Lamplighter magazine where I got my new nickname — the Star Trek Eschatologist. Boy, thanks for that!

Dr. Reagan: Well, I called you that because you boldly go where no one else has gone before when it comes to being an Eschatologist.

Bill Salus: Well, that label has created some repercussions everywhere I go, for now people think I’ve become some kind of pest exterminator! They don’t know what an Eschatologist is, so I’ve got to explain the label to them. Eschatos means “last or final” in the Greek, and ology is “study,” so together Eschatology is the “study of the last and final days.”

Nathan Jones: Alright, Captain Salus, are you ready to embark on another journey?

Bill Salus: Let’s boldly go!

Nathan Jones: Yes, let’s boldly address the subject of Mystery Babylon. Let’s go right to the source text, which is Revelation 17:1-6:

“Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and talked with me, saying to me, ‘Come, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot who sits on many waters, with whom the kings of the earth committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth were made drunk with the wine of her fornication.’

So he carried me away in the Spirit into the wilderness. And I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast which was full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication. And on her forehead a name was written:

Mystery, Babylon the great, the Mother of Harlots and of the Abominations of the Earth.

And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her, I marveled with great amazement.”

Bill, when it comes to Mystery Babylon there are questions like who, and what, and where. Let’s start with the where. Dr. John Walvoord holds to the most popular view in his Bible Knowledge Commentary believing that this Mystery Babylon, this prophetic Harlot, is actually the future rebuilt city of Babylon. Do you agree?

Bill Salus: I confirm that Dr. Walvoord holds the popular view, also held by other Bible experts such as Dr. Mark Hitchcock, Joel Rosenberg, and quite a number of others. Various Bible prophecy teachers adhere to one of several potential candidate cities being Mystery Babylon.

We are told in Revelation 17-18 that Mystery Babylon will be a great city. I remind people that, according to 2 Peter 1:20, no prophecy is subject to private interpretation. So, we have to look at the details of the prophecy. We’ve got to weed through the various interpretations given for the different candidate cities and narrow the list down to the actual one. There are five main candidate cities, and four of them cannot be the right ones.

I’m not advocating that I know for sure which is the correct one, but I think the body of evidence sways towards the direction of Rome. That will be my argument.

There are three primary reasons why I have concerns with Mystery Babylon being a rebuilt Babylon.

Let’s start with reason number one, and let’s focus on “rebuilt.” Unlike the other four candidate cities, Babylon is not a significant city right now. Saddam Hussein tried to rebuild it a little bit. The other candidate cities are already significant cities and so they could easily become that prophesied city, but the bottom line is the Antichrist would have to rebuild Babylon. To this day it’s located in a war-torn area due to schisms between the Shiites and the Sunnis, causing the complete rebuilding of Babylon unlikely. Some of the advocates for a rebuilt Babylon remind us that Dubai was built very rapidly into a city, and so could Babylon, but that seems highly unlikely within the limited Tribulation time-line.

For reason number two, let’s focus on the “Mystery” of Mystery Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth. By definition, in the Old Testament a mystery was something that was concealed. In the New Testament, it is revealed. An angel reveals this mystery to us in Revelation 17:7-18. He tells us in verse 9 that Mystery Babylon will be “a city that sits on seven hills,” which at the time when John wrote Revelation, was the notorious description of Rome. The Romans even had coinage at the time of the goddess Roma sitting on seven hills.

Verse 15 describes the Harlot’s global reach across many tribes, tongues, peoples and nations. And, most importantly, verse 18 tells something significant. “The woman you saw,” referring to Mystery Babylon in this vision given to John, “is the great city which reigns over the kings of the earth.” So, let’s break that down. The woman he saw, past tense, sits on the waters, meaning the multiple tribes, tongues and nations. And, the city reigns over the kings of the earth. There could only be one city that held such power at the time John wrote. He would clearly recognize Rome. The text doesn’t say it will be the city that reigns over the kings, it says it is reigning.

Lastly, for reason number three, I find this to be a very disturbing verse for those others who advocate a city other than Rome as Mystery Babylon, and that is Revelation 18:20. “Rejoice over her, O heaven, and you holy apostles and prophets, for God has avenged you on her! God has judged her for the way she has treated you.” God was referring to the martyrdom of the holy Apostles. That’s two or more apostles plural had to be judged and executed under the present authorities of what this end times Babylon would eventually become. Peter, Paul, Andrew and Jesus’ brother, James — these apostles were killed by the “Babylon” of their time, IE. Rome.

Look at some of these other candidate cities, particularly a rebuilt Babylon in Iraq. Which of the Apostles were killed in Babylon? Was it John? Was it Matthew? No! Not one of them were killed in Babylon.

Dr. Reagan: One argument against Babylon comes from the book of Isaiah. Isaiah prophesied that when Babylon is destroyed by the Medes it will become as Sodom and Gomorrah, never to be rebuilt again. Advocates of Mystery Babylon being a rebuilt Babylon will often claim Babylon wasn’t destroyed in the same way as Sodom. Isaiah doesn’t say that. He said Babylon would become as Sodom and Gomorrah. And, it has become as Sodom and Gomorrah — erased forever.

Nathan Jones: Isaiah 13:20 reads, “It will never be inhabited nor will be settled from generation to generation.” Wouldn’t a rebuilding of Babylon break that prophecy?

Bill Salus: Correct, yes. Isaiah 13 provides another textual argument I have against Mystery Babylon being a rebuilt Babylon.

In the second segment of our interview with Bill Salus identifying the city of Mystery Babylon, we’ll explore Jerusalem as a potential candidate.

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Nathan Jones

Nathan Jones

Assoc. Evangelist and Web Minister for Lamb & Lion Ministries, reaching out to the nearly three billion people accessible over the Internet with the Good News of Jesus Christ.

17 CommentsLeave a Comment

  • Loved the article. a couple of comments /questions. When John sees the city reigning over the earth(Rev 17:18) it is during the tribulation. Rome will have to obtain a lot more power and authority to do that. It isn’t even that powerful in the EU. The Mystery Babylon would have to be talking about the RCC and its Babylonian foundations? The Beast will have to infuse Rome with his Satanic power. I was in the RCC for the first 30 years of my life, so I am real familiar with their false teaching. I do agree with verse 20 conclusion. Finally, the Beast could gather the resources to rebuild Babylon quickly. Still not 100% convinced either way. But see your points. Thanks

  • Looking at my concordance, the word “never” in Hebrew means “not” or “no” and often used with other particles: before, or else, ere, except, much, less, nay, neither, never… and so on. Why is the English word, “never” the correct derivation? I am wondering if the word, “ever” and “never” actually have an eternal meaning or not. In Exodus 27:20-21, Aaron and his sons and all his generations were commanded to keep the lamp outside the vail, fueled and lit “for ever”. Obviously this is no longer the case as the temple is no longer necessary to have access to God. To me, when these words are used, they need to be considered in context, and when the Bible says for ever or never, it means for a very long time. The word “ever” in Psalm 110:4 means: concealed, i.e.the vanishing point: gen. time out of mind (past or fut.), i.e. (practically) eternity; Since I believe it is talking about the Messiah, I am assuming that it means eternity – again within context, we know Jesus is the ultimate sacrifice and he replaces the temple sacrifices permanently. But within context, Babylon could be rebuilt, and it could lie fallow for these thousands of years until it is rebuilt. Although the evidence presented here for Rome being Babylon of Revelation is compelling! But I agree with the previous commenter that Babylon could be built very quickly. We do know that Babylon will rise again, whether that means in meaning as in by it’s purpose or physically, I think is still up for debate from looking at this article. I think that Babylon is more a concept of rebellion and unity against God, which is the real reason God destroyed the tower of Babel – not because they would make it to heaven with their puny building. God does not destroy our rockets because our purpose is not to get to heaven to be as gods, but to explore and create a political presence. So Babylon is a concept of rebellion and unity against God, and the physical manifestation doesn’t have to be the exact same city. So far, this is what I see in the Bible.

  • 1. “Mystery Babylon” is Mecca. Mecca is physically in Babylon. Read the Bible literally. Rome was never part of Babylon, but the territory in Arabia extending to where Mecca is located was part of the Babylonian Empire.
    2. Mecca sits on 7 mountains. (Revelation 17:9)
    3. The Kaaba in Mecca is the “wicked house” in Babylon of Zechariah 5:6-11.3. The Kaaba Blackstone is the image.
    4. Mohammad said the Kaaba Blackstone will speak. (Revelation 13:15 And it was given to him to give breath to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast would even speak and cause as many as do not worship the image of the beast to be killed.)
    5. Paul preached in Arabia (the Ishmaelites) for three years with no success. (Galatians 1:15-17) He established no churches and wrote no letters to Arabia.
    6. Paul said: “Get rid of the slave woman and her son, for the slave woman’s son will never share in the inheritance with the free woman’s son.”[Ishmael] (Galatians 4:21-31).
    7. Paul said: “They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. For this reason God sends them a powerful delusion so that they will believe the lie and so that all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness” (2 Thessalonians 2:10-12).
    8. Satan (the man of lawlessness in 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12) was physically revealed to Mohammad in Mecca, and later Medina during 610-632
    9. Islam is 27% of the world—soon to be 33%. Islam is spiritual death. (Revelation 9:13-21)
    10. Mohammad is the False Prophet. There will NEVER be another prophet in Islam. Read the Koran. Few prophecy experts have studied the Koran. It is directly from Satan. Mohammad is the “seal of the prophets” in the Koran. All Muslims know Mohammad was the final prophet.
    11. Since 610, Mohammad has taken five billion souls down the wrong path.
    12. Revelation’s Image is the Kaaba Blackstone in Mecca. Mohammad placed the Blackstone in the Kaaba. The Blackstone was originally at Pergamum. It is the same Ephesus stone “that fell from heaven” in Acts 19:32-41. “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” It was associated with Artemis and Cybill worship at first, then Islam. Therefore, Jesus hated the actions of the Nicolaitans. Nicolaitans are only at both Pergamum and Ephesus. All Islamic prayer (the “Qibla”) is the precise direction of the Blackstone.
    13. This is why Jesus gives the opposite “white stone” of truth of Revelation 2:12-17.
    14. Revelation’s Mark is the Shahada. “There is no God but Allah. Mohammad is the messenger of Allah.”
    15. Shahada’s final form was finished in the year 666. Shahada was from Mohammad.
    16. Shahada is Satan’s copy of the Shema.
    17. Koran’s false story of Jesus is the “dark smoke” of Revelation 9:1-11.
    18. The Four Horsemen are the first four Islamic leaders, Mohammad, Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman. They had authority over one quarter of the world with the Umayyad Caliphate.
    19. Umar is the “king will do as he pleases” in Daniel 11.
    20. Dome of the Rock (688) and Al-Aqsa Mosque (706) are Daniel’s abominations.
    21. 1260 Days/Years in the wilderness are from 688 to 1948.
    22. The 42 Months (1278.4 Days/Years) of trampling the Holy City are 688 to 1967.
    23. Mohammad was taken on night ride from Mecca to the Outer Court, precisely where the Dome of the Rock is today. That is why Revelation 11 says to exclude the Outer Court. The Dome of the Rock gives false testimony that Jesus is not God and was not crucified.
    24. Psalm 83 war was 1948 war for Israel’s independence.
    25. The False Prophet is NOT at the battle in Revelation 19. Many people teach he leads this battle, but John DOES NOT see him. John only sees the beast and kings. He does not see the False Prophet in the battle. The False Prophet is punished on the Day of the Lord.

    • For the Antichrist or Harlot to originate from the Middle East and Islam is problematic. If Russia-Iran is wiped out in the Ezekiel 38-39 attack God miraculously delivers Israel from, and Israel’s surrounding nations seem to be non-players in most of the Tribulation, how could Islam dominate the Middle East and the Antichrist be Muslim? It would seem such defeats would dishearten any Muslim. Also, if the Antichrist is supposedly not into women and could be gay (Dan. 11:37), the Muslims would want him dead, right? Also, the Antichrist glorifies himself. Even the Mahdi couldn’t do that, for worship alone is for Allah.

      I’d have to conclude on these and other verses that Islam is just another system that will be wiped out before the Antichrist instills his system and makes a grab for the Middle East riches that Israel will also be claiming, hence a peace treaty and the taking over of all former Roman Empire lands.

      For a detailed analysis of the biblical supports for the Antichrist coming from Europe, please see http://www.lamblion.com/articles/articles_islam4.php. For a detailed review of the Muslim Antichrist theory, check out our “Christ in Prophecy” episode at http://christinprophecy.org/?sermons=qa-with-prophecy-experts-part-2-will-the-antichrist-be-a-muslim, as well as this article at http://www.lamblion.com/articles/articles_islam4.php and accompanying articles at http://christinprophecy.org/articles/#Islam.

      • The antichrist is Satan, not a man.

        1 John 2:18-23

        18 Dear children, this is the last hour; and as you have heard that the antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come. This is how we know it is the last hour. 19 They went out from us, but they did not really belong to us. For if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us; but their going showed that none of them belonged to us.

        20 But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and all of you know the truth. 21 I do not write to you because you do not know the truth, but because you do know it and because no lie comes from the truth. 22 Who is the liar? It is whoever denies that Jesus is the Christ. Such a person is the antichrist—denying the Father and the Son. 23 No one who denies the Son has the Father; whoever acknowledges the Son has the Father also.

      • In part, as the Antichrist will be possessed by Satan. But, as Revelation 19:20 describes, “Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who worked signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. These two were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone.” Then, in Revelation 20, Satan is cast into a pit for 1,000 years and finally into Hell. So, the Antichrist and Satan are two distinct entities.

      • Daniel 8:19 tells us that the antichrist will be a tyrant of unbridled ruthlessness. A king will arise, insolent, and skilled in intrigue. His power will be mighty…and he will destroy to an extraordinary degree. the Bible teaches that in the end times, right before the return of Jesus, a great political leader will appear from Europe, who will take over that area by diplomatic cunning and deceit. He will appear to be the savior of the world, but as he consolidates his power, his true nature will be revealed. For this reason, he is identified in scripture as the Antichrist, 1 John 2:18. He will stand against God and His anointed one, Jesus. Daniel 9:26, he is referred to as the prince who is to come, and he is identified as being from the people who “will destroy the city and the sanctuary.”

        We know from history that both Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple were destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD. Therefore, according to Daniel, the Antichrist must be of Roman heritage. The Bible makes it clear that he will be a Gentile. In Revelation 13:1 he is portrayed as the “beast coming up out of the sea.” The sea is used consistently throughout the prophetic scriptures as a symbol of the Gentile nations, Daniel 7:3; Luke 21:25, and Revelation 17:1.

  • I respect those who disagree, but I think Rev. Salus is correct that Babylon in Revelation is Rome. Thanks for the article.

    • Well, that’s got to be one of the scariest things I’ve seen in awhile. Never heard of it till now. Yikes!! Or, as they say in America, “Good luck with that!”

  • With all due respect, you misuse the word “antichrist.”

    Use “antichrist” only as the Bible uses it. “Antichrist” is only found in 1 John and 2 John. It is not found in the book of Revelation.

    John made clear the work of the antichrist was ALREADY in the world at the time of his writing. The false prophet is not the antichrist. The false prophet was Mohammad.

    Antichrist in 1 John

    1 John 2:18-23

    18 Dear children, this is the last hour; and as you have heard that the antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come. This is how we know it is the last hour. 19 They went out from us, but they did not really belong to us. For if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us; but their going showed that none of them belonged to us.

    20 But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and all of you know the truth. 21 I do not write to you because you do not know the truth, but because you do know it and because no lie comes from the truth. 22 Who is the liar? It is whoever denies that Jesus is the Christ. Such a person is the antichrist—denying the Father and the Son. 23 No one who denies the Son has the Father; whoever acknowledges the Son has the Father also.

    Antichrist in 2 John

    2 John 1:7-8

    7 I say this because many deceivers, who do not acknowledge Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh, have gone out into the world. Any such person is the deceiver and the antichrist. 8 Watch out that you do not lose what we have worked for, but that you may be rewarded fully.

  • Having a problem with Rome as mystery Babylon:

    1. Bible is MidEast centric

    2.Rome or/European nations show no inclination to martyr Christians (Rev. 18:6,24)

    3.Throwing sand on heads is a Mid East custom (Rev. 18:19)

    4. Merchandise quoted is more descriptive of Saudi Arabia then Rome (Rev. 18:12,13,16)

    5. If Rome is mystery Babylon (the woman), then the antichrist and ten nations will turn on the very empire out of which the antichrist came. In other words, they will destroy the revived harlot empire (Rev. 17:16,17).

    6.The Antichrist’s kingdom will be a composite of Greece, Medo-Persia and Babylon (Rev. 13:1,2)

    7. Rome is not mentioned as the fourth beast in Dan. 7:7.

    8. John was carried away in Spirit to a wilderness. Rome is not a wilderness (Rev. 17:3)

    9. Antichrist’s kingdom (#8) will be the revival of the 7th kingdom which couldn’t possibly be Rome (Rev. 17:11). The 7th empire remained only a short while (Rev. 17:10).

  • I have heard that Istanbul, Turkey, is a City on seven hills. And that Turkey is very anti Christian now. Has anyone ever suggested this site as a possibility?

  • The Anti-Christ is a man empowered by Satan. The Pope is the False Prophet the Anti-Christ- called the “Beast” in Revelation. Once the Rapture takes place- The Church Age [Dispensation of Grace ends]- God’s wrath will be poured out over the earth. I am amazed at the number of Christians who have been deceived by many so-called church leaders who have lured people away from the Rapture of the Church. It is the Church on earth that holds back the Son of Perdition- Anti-Christ- which is defined as – “one in place of Christ”. Once the Church is gone- Anti-Christ is free to come forth. “2Th 2:6 And now ye know what with-holdeth that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth [will let], until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming: [Even him], whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,
    And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”

    Rome is the seat of the Catholic Church because it reigns over the Kings and People of the earth through a much stronger force than politics- it uses Religion and Fear. It has done so since Constantine the last Roman Emperor accepted Christianity into Rome’s circle of Pantheistic ‘gods/religious system’. This was 250 years after the death of the last Apostle of Christ- so Peter could not have been the first Pope, nor was Paul involved with Catholicism. The only thing Paul got from Rome was beheaded.

    The Papacy {another 200 years later} was funded and created by the powerful and rich Medici’s of Florence- who realized that the head of the Catholicisim – was a way to increase their wealth exponentially. At least 3 early Popes came from Medici families. All of the other non-scriptural practices- celibacy, the host, substantiation and other controlling fear factors came within another 150-200 years, or 400 years from the death of the last Apostle. So Catholicism does not equal Christian. This is recorded History, not Scripture. Also, Catholicism gets a lot of it’s practices & beliefs from Babylon- the confessional, transubstantiation, Saint worship, etc. The Crusade were not about getting people to accept Christ- It was about getting people to accept Catholicism as the final Authority- hiding behind the name of Christ. It was not until King James dared to defy them and have the scriptures translated into the common tongue- that people of those ages had any idea what the Bible even said. And Rome was furious!

    Rome is the Great Whore of Babylon- The Roman Catholic Church- Babylon the Great. The Biggest Cult there has ever been. 1.8 billion residents of earth today are Catholics. “Rev 18:2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.” This is describing a false religious system- foul spirits; unclean and hateful birds- demons”. I am amazed at all of the evangelicals that are afraid to call out the Seat of Satan that is Catholicism.

    The Pope is not the Anti-Christ but will serve as Antichrist’s False Prophet. “Rev 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.” This is the description that will take place at the end of the 7 year Tribulation and will begin the Millennial Reign of Christ on Earth.

    The Anti-Christ – per se- it is now believed by many Theologians- will be Islamic. As most Bible students know- we have a far greater revelation of scripture today- especially prophecy-than ever before. The book of Daniel says in the last days “knowledge shall be increased”. If you take this to it’s logical conclusion- only a Muslim could bring- if not peace- at least a co-existence- between Israel and it’s Islamic neighbors. Of course- he [the Beast] will create “The abomination that causes desolation” exactly in the middle of the Tribulation and the Jews will know, not only that they were deceived, but their forefathers killed the Messiah when he came- 2000 years ago. Then Christ will come back with his Translated Saints and so will begin the battle to end all wars- Armageddon. Read Rev. 14. “And the blood of men flowed as deep as horse’s bridles”.

    The one thing people forget, and/or don’t know- especially self centered Americans and much of the world- the entire Tribulation, the Anti-Christ, 3 1/2 years of Peace, then 3 1/2 years of desolation- the time of Jacob’s trouble- is for the Jews. It is for the House of Israel. If you claim to be Christian and you think America, the European Union, or any other force in the world has a part in the Tribulation, The Seat of Satan, the Anti-Christ, False Prophet or any of the other scriptures- you are deceived. The NAR and other Heretics and Apostates are taking over many churches- trying to make them think they will have to re-take Earth from Satan- if you believe any of that- you will probably not make the Rapture. Nor will you survive the Tribulation. I know this is a scripture that’s been quoted since I was a child about every time, , but I think that the Great Tribulation is the time Jesus meant- “Luke 23:31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?”

  • I have often thought that Rome would be the perfect candidate for the Mystery Babylon of the tribulation period. Here is why. The Vatican has the perfect setup for worldwide communications and as a “religious” headquarters, so to speak. In fact, over the years it has become known by many (undeservably, to say the least) as the center for Christianity. With that history and reputation, it’s not a stretch to think that after the rapture, with all true believers gone from the earth, those who remain would naturally turn to Rome for answers. And the Antichrist, who would naturally make the Vatican his headquarters. With the post-rapture panic in New York and other financial headquarters, Rome would be a natural takeover. Just my thoughts.

  • It seems obvious that its Rome. Revelation 17:9-17. Here is the mind which has wisdom. “The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sits, and they are seven kings; five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come; and when he comes, he must remain a little while.” The beast which was and is not, is himself also an eighth and is one of the seven, and he goes to destruction. The ten horns which you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but they receive authority as kings with the beast for one hour. These have one purpose, and they give power and authority to the beast. (It will be the antichrist who will rule over the reunited Roman Empire.)

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